In recent years, due to years of continuous cropping and lack of crop rotation, soil diseases and insect pests in high value-added crop planting bases in many places have become more and more serious, which greatly affects the yield and quality of crops, and has become one of the headaches for growers. Sulfuryl fluoride fumigant (disinfection) is an effective measure to solve this problem, but the following points should be paid attention to when fumigating the soil:
1. The fumigation time should be timely.
Sulfuryl fluoride fumigant should be selected immediately after the previous crop is harvested to have a good effect. At this time, root-knot nematodes mostly gather on the soil surface, and it is easier to concentrate and kill them. Otherwise, the soil disinfection after the pests and diseases migrate to the deep layer of the soil will reduce the effect, causing some pathogens to escape by chance and reoccur in the coming year.
2. Choose the medicine properly.
The sulfuryl fluoride fumigant agents on the market mainly include: methyl bromide, methenon, chloropicrin, 1, 3-dichloropropene, sulfuryl fluoride, methamphetamine, etc. These agents have certain effects on fungi, bacteria, and nematodes. Preventive effect, but many of them are highly toxic and highly toxic products, which are not safe for humans and animals. Therefore, it is recommended to choose high-efficiency, low-toxic and environmentally friendly compound liquid sulfuryl fluoride fumigant disinfectant pesticides.
3. The environmental conditions should be suitable.
Disinfection with sulfuryl fluoride fumigant, the mechanism of sterilization (insect) is mostly: after chemical agents are applied to the soil, the original liquid or solid turns into gas, and the gas spreads among the soil particles, killing the harmful pathogens in the soil that can cause plant disease Organisms can prevent diseases and therefore require: ①The permeability of the soil should be good. Turn over 20-30 centimeters of soil to be treated before soil fumigation. ②The soil moisture is suitable. Generally, sulfuryl fluoride fumigant has a good effect when the soil moisture content is between 40% and 70%. ③The soil temperature is reasonable. The ideal temperature can keep the harmful organisms in a "live" state, which is convenient for the fumigant to perform better. Usually the ideal soil temperature is 15 cm ground temperature 15-20 ℃.
4. Prevent re-infection after fumigation.
The fumigant only eliminates the existing pests and diseases in the soil, there is no effective period, and can do nothing about the re-introduced pests and diseases. Soon after fumigation, nematodes and other pests and diseases were found on the plots. It may not be that the fumigation was not completed, but the pests and diseases reinfected again, such as the seedlings with pests. In some cases, rainwater rushes into the soil with disease and insects, and the disease and insects are brought in with shoes outside the shed. These should be paid attention to, and the channels for the introduction of nematodes should be cut off as much as possible.
5. Do not turn the soil too deep after smoking.
If the soil is turned much deeper after smoking than before, or even if it is not turned before and deep after smoking, the nematodes and other pests that have not been killed in the deep layer will be turned up.
6. Add organic fertilizer after smoking.
Soil disinfection fumigant not only kills harmful organisms, but also beneficial organisms. Therefore, the disinfected soil should be fertilized with bio-organic fertilizer to supplement the number of beneficial organisms.